hathitrust-28010 czerwca 2014 r. Sąd Apelacyjny Drugiego Okręgu (południowy Nowy Jork) wydał wyrok, przychylając się do argumentów HathiTrust i odrzucając apel kilku organizacji autorskich, w tym m.in. amerykańskego Authors Guild i szwedzkiego Sveriges Författarförbund. W podsumowaniu wyroku czytamy:

“...utrzymujemy, że doktryna “dozwolonego użytku” pozwala pozwanym na stworzenie bazy danych umożliwiającej przeszukiwanie pełnotekstowe dzieł objętych prawami autorskimi i na dostarczenie tych dzieł w formatach dostępnych dla osób niepełnosprawnych.”

Dlaczego ten wyrok ma duże znaczenie dla archiwów i bibliotek? W prawodawstwie USA, w odróżnieniu np. od polskiego, doktryna “dozwolonego użytku” jest zdefiniowana w prawie autorskim w postaci dość ogólnych reguł. Powoduje to, że konkretne przypadki są decydowane przez sądy, ale także pozwala na uwzględnienie nowych rozwiązań technicznych.

W 2004 kilka uniwersytetów w USA zgodziło się, aby Google zeskanowało ich kolekcje książek. W 2008 trzynaście uniwersytetów ufundowało organizację o nazwie HathiTrust w celu zarządzania powstającą w ten sposób wspólną biblioteką cyfrową. Obecnie HathiTrust ma 80 członków instytucjonalnych i ponad 10 milionów zdigitalizowanych dzieł, opublikowanych poprzez wieki, w wielu językach i obejmujących wszystkie wyobrażalne tematy. HathiTrust, wraz Internet Archive, Project Gutenberg i innymi projektami digitalizacji jest organizacją partnerską dającą szeroki dostęp do dóbr kultury człowieka.

Wyrok Sądu apelacyjnego jednoznacznie odrzuca teorię, według której digitalizacja książek w celu stworzenia bazy danych jest naruszeniem praw autorskich, przynajmniej w USA. Jakkolwiek droga apelacji nie została jeszcze wyczerpana, wyrok ten ma bardzo duże znaczenie dla wszystkich, którzy digitalizują zbiory kultury. Jest przed nami jeszcze daleka droga do rozsądnego ulepszenia praw autorskich - patrz np. blog o tygodniu praw autorskich, ale ten wyrok jest krzepiącym precedensem.

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Marek Zieliński, 15 czerwca 2014

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Rola wikipedii w cztereach typach bibliotekPanel "Wikipedia’s Role in Four Different Types of Librarianship". Wikiconference USA 2014. Photo Piotr Puchalski

Wikiconference USA 2014 was held from Friday, May 30 to Sunday, June 1 2014 at New York Law School in Manhattan. The conference brought together U.S.-based Wikipedians who discussed current hot topics related to the Free Encyclopedia and its sister organizations in the Wikimedia Foundation. In addition to technical issues, training and a day dedicated to an “Unconference,” many sessions were devoted to topics of close interest to the GLAM institutions and educational organizations, such as the use of Wikipedia in academic courses, copyright, Wikiprojects and other forms of partnership with Wikipedia. Below are some reflections from parallel sessions that we participated in.

The first day of the conference resulted in many ideas for the development of the GLAM project of the Piłsudski Institute. During the session in which four different institutions presented their way of using Wikipedia, Natalie Milbrodt from the Queens Library shared her innovative idea of the " Edit-a-thon.” The “Edit-a-thon” is a gathering of people interested in a particular field, during which, on the basis of documents that a given institution has in possession, they write articles to Wikipedia, first having learned the basics of Wikipedia editing.

Our current Wikipedian-in-Residence (WiR), Piotr Puchalski is finishing his internship at the Institute at the end of July. He is moving to Madison, Wisconsin to continue his studies in global Polish history. We are therefore seeking his replacement, a volunteer Wikipedian in Residence at the Piłsudski Institute. Using the resources available in the Institute, its archives and library, the intern would work to expand the Wikipedia coverage in the topics related to the Institute and its resources, and help organize Wikipedia events etc.

We are looking for a person interested in the history of Poland, Central Europe and Polish/European emigration. Familiarity with Polish and Wikipedia editing are desired. With the help of Wikimedia NYC and Piotr,  we can also train the candidate the Wikipedia editing basics.

The Piłsudski Institute has a large number of resources related to modern Polish history as well as primary sources concerning outstanding historical figures and important events, for example soldiers who fought in both World Wars and Polish émigré activists and institutions. The Piłsudski Institute WikiProject contains information related to the the goals of the WiR and a listing of the proposed topics and activities.

While we seek someone to fill the position in-residence, we would also like to encourage Wikipedia enthusiasts to join the project remotely and contribute to the historical coverage of Wikipedia.

As mentioned in the recent bulletin, the Institute is making aggressive moves to ensure our long-term stability while concurrently seeking new permanent headquarters.  Our programs and extensive membership will be better served by a new, vibrant space in which we can dedicate ourselves to our mission and our goals.

Expanding Our Network 

The “Campaign for the Future” will ensure that the Institute’s programs thrive for years to come. In order to accomplish this goal, the Institute seeks to expand its network and introduce our programs/services to new individuals, companies and foundations.  Specifically, over the past 6 weeks, the campaign staff has performed extensive prospect researches and identified over 60 companies and foundations that have commercial and programmatic interests in both the U.S.A. and Poland.  We have subsequently written to these prospects seeking to launch a dialogue and/or secure philanthropic funding for the Institute.  The Development Team is continuing the outreach and cultivation of these and other logical prospects.

The Role You Can Play:

  • You can help the “Campaign for the Future” by either making a financial donation or by making an introduction to a donor, corporation or foundation which may be interested in supporting the organization. Coming soon you will see a dedicated “Campaign for the Future” hub online.
  • Hosting a “campaign briefing” at your office or in your home for a group of 10 or more interested individuals. If you are willing to assist in this way, please be aware that the Institute will send a representative to give a briefing on the Institute and why our Campaign is relevant.
  • Consider volunteering for “Campaign for the Future” by joining the “Campaign Steering Committee”. Committee members volunteer to support the Development Team’s objectives; members assist with mailings, introductions to potential supporters and assist in marketing the Campaign within their own network.

The Institute is a non-profit organization and therefore membership dues and donations are tax deductible.  Please make your check or money order payable to The Pilsudski Institute of America or make a gift online.  If you have any questions about the Campaign please contact the Institute by telephone or email. 

Thank you for your tireless commitment to our mission.

linked-data280A fragment of a Linked Data Graph from LinkedData.org

Linked Data is a relatively new phenomenon in the World Wide Web, providing access to structured data. What is structured data? World Wide Web is now a universal vehicle for human-readable information - all websites, articles, apps give us information that we can read and interpret, for example an answer to the question “when is the next bus coming to this bus stop?” Such information is not easy for a computer to read - it does not know what “this stop” means, whether you are waiting a specific line or any bus, etc. Computers require information with a structure, which for example can take form of label:value pairs (“bus stop number:4398, bus line:Q11, distance from the stop:2.5 miles, etc.).

Information is commonly stored in databases, which have evolved to be very efficient in data storage and retrieval, but terrible in information sharing. Each database has lots of columns, each named differently and only the local computer system knows how to retrieve the data. This is where the new concept, Linked Data, comes to the rescue. Linked Data is an system  that makes computers understand each other by labeling databases with metadata. Its metadata scheme, RDF (resource description framework), requires that data comes not in provincial tables, but in universally readable RDF sentences, consisting of subject, predicate and object. Instead of invented column names we use standard names arranged in ontologies, and instead of a textual description of the  subject of the RDF sentence we use its identifier, URI (Universal Resource Identifier). Thus, instead of the trivial for the human reader information about the title of this blog (after all we can read it above, right?) we get a structured sentence or “triple” in RDF lingo, [http://www.pilsudski.org/en/news/blog/832 - dc:title - “Linked Data part 2: Where Is the Data?”]. The first part is the URI or unique “address” of this article, the second means “title” in a specific metadata standard (Dublin Core), and the third part is the actual title.

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